Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access


Kapil Juneja, Shaloo Bansal


Video watermarking enables the users to share the digital contents in public domain without any issue. However, video watermarking is also infected by various attacks that can even destroy the hidden watermark. The security, robustness and reliability are the key challenges of any Video watermarking technique. In this paper, such a robust and dynamic video watermarking framework is presented that can handle most of the existing issues. In this framework, the video is hiding on the selective frames and the preference of frames is done based on structural feature evaluation. After performing the frame selection, the featured analysis is accomplished on each frame to identify the effective cover blocks. The structure feature analysis based rules are applied to identify the most secure region over the frame. In the final stage, the histogram shift method is applied to perform data hiding. To improve the security, instead of hiding the complete image, the ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) encrypted image is watermarked within the video frames. The analysis is performed on real time videos. The analysis results are generated in terms of MSE (Mean Square Error), PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), SSIM (Structural Similarity Measure) and BCR (Bit Correct Ratio) parameters. The results identified that the proposed model has improved the effectiveness, robustness and security against various attacks. The comparative results are also validated against the DCT and DCT-SVD based video watermarking methods.


video watermarking; histogram shift; ECC; dynamic pattern; secure.

Full Text:



S. Kikan and V.R. Singh, “Dynamic pattern based model for effective image-sequence watermarking,”Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 966-971, 2018.

A. Kerbiche, S. Ben Jabra, E. Zagrouba, V. Charvillat, “A robust video watermarking based on feature regions and crowdsourcing,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 77, no. 20, pp. 26769-26791, 2018.

Z.S. Velickovic, Z. Milivojevic, and M.Z. Velickovic, “A secured digital video watermarking in chrominance channel,” Proceedings of the 23rd International Scientific-Professional Conference on Information Technology (IT), Zabljak, 2018, pp. 1-4.

M. Asikuzzaman and M.R. Pickering, “An overview of digital video watermarking,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2131-2153, 2018.

B. Sridhar, “An investigation of different video watermarking techniques,” International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 387-406, 2017.

G. Gupta, V.K. Gupta, and M. Chandra, “An efficient video watermarking based security model,” Microsystem Technologies, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2539–2548, 2018.

P. Rasti, S. Samiei, M. Agoyi, S. Escalera, and G. Anbarjafari, “Robust non-blind color video watermarking using QR decomposition and entropy analysis,” Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol. 38, pp. 838-847, 2016.

A. Bhardwaj, V.S. Verma, and R.K. Jha, “Robust video watermarking using significant frame selection based on coefficient difference of lifting wavelet transform,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 77, no. 15, pp. 19659-19678, 2018.

K. Aditya, A. Choudhary, A. Raj, and M. Sing, “Video watermarking based on Cuckoo search and scene change detection,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS), Palladam, 2017, pp. 420-424.

Y. Himeur and A. Boukabou, “A robust and secure key-frames based video watermarking system using chaotic encryption,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 77, no. 7, pp. 8603-8327, 2018.

D. Shukla and M. Sharma, “A novel scene-based video watermarking scheme for copyright protection,” Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 47-66, 2018.

C. Vural and B. Barakli, “Adaptive reversible video watermarking based on motion-compensated prediction error expansion with pixel selection,” Signal, Image and Video Processing, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1225-1232, 2016.

A. Bhardwaj and A. Khunteta, “Video watermarking equations using DWT and DCT sub-sub bands for secure transmission over communication channels: A research paper,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power, Control, Signals and Instrumentation Engineering (ICPCSI), Chennai, 2017, pp. 436-440.

M.A. Gangarde and J.S. Chitode, “Application of crypto-video watermarking technique to improve robustness and imperceptibiltiy of secret data,” Proceedings of the IEEE Fourth International Conference on Image Information Processing (ICIIP), Shimla, 2017, pp. 1-6.

C. Cai, G. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Han, “A reversible watermarking algorithm for high efficiency video coding,” Proceedings of the IEEE 10th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, BioMedical Engineering and Informatics (CISP-BMEI), Shanghai, 2017, pp. 1-6.

V. Adul and E. Mwangi, “A robust video watermarking approach based on a hybrid SVD/DWT technique,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference AFRICON, 2017, pp. 309-313.

M. Ghalejughi and M.A. Akhaee, “Video watermarking in the DT-CWT domain using hyperbolic function,” Proceedings of the IEEE 13th International Iranian Society of Cryptology Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC), Tehran, 2016, pp. 97-100.

S. Kadu, C. Naveen, V.R. Satpute, and A.G. Keskar, “A blind video watermarking technique for indoor video content protection using discrete wavelet transform,” Proceedings of the IEEE Students' Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science (SCEECS), Bhopal, 2016, pp. 1-6.

S. Kadu, C. Naveen, V.R. Satpute, and A.G. Keskar, “Discrete wavelet transform based video watermarking technique,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Microelectronics, Computing and Communications (MicroCom), Durgapur, 2016, pp. 1-6.

F. Alenizi, F. Kurdahi, A. Eltawil, and A. Aljumah, “DWT-based watermarking technique for video authentication,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems (ICECS), Cairo, 2015, pp. 41-44.

S.B. Latha, D.V. Reddy, and A. Damodaram, “Digital video watermarking using DWT and singular values,” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies (ICTCS'16), New York, 2016, p. 5.

K. Meenakshi, K. Swaraja, and P. Kora, “A robust DCT-SVD based video watermarking using zigzag scanning,” Soft Computing and Signal Processing, pp. 477-485, 2019.

C.N. Sujatha and P. Sathyanarayana, “DWT-based blind video watermarking using image scrambling technique,” Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent Systems, pp. 621-628, 2018.

H. Mareen, J.D. Praeter, G.V. Wallendael, and P. Lambert, “A novel video watermarking approach based on implicit distortions,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 250-258, 2018.

J. Upadhyay, B. Mishra, and P. Patel, “A modified approach of video watermarking using DWT-BP based LSB algorithm,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Information, Communication, Instrumentation and Control (ICICIC), Indore, 2017, pp. 1-6.

L. Li et al., “A novel framework of robust video watermarking based on statistical model,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing and Security, 2018, pp. 160-172.

P. Afeefa and I. Muhammed, “A histogram based watermarking for videos and images with high security,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Soft Computing Systems, 2018, pp. 111-115.

Z. Bahrami and F. A. Tab, “A new robust video watermarking algorithm based on SURF features and block classification,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 327–345, 2018.

R. Esfahani, M.A. Akhaee, and Z. Norouzi, “A fast video watermarking algorithm using dual tree complex wavelet transform,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, pp. 1-17, 2018.

S. Mawande and H. Dakhore, “Video watermarking using DWT-DCT-SVD algorithms,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC), Erode, 2017, pp. 1161-1164.


  • There are currently no refbacks.