• Mohammed Hussein Ahmed
  • Ahmed Kareem Shibeeb
  • Fadhil Hanoon Abbood


Henon map, Image cryptosystem, Gray difference degree (GVD), Encryption quality


Chaos-based image encryption has great significance as a branch of image security. So, a series of chaos-based cryptosystems protecting digital images are proposed in recent years. But, most of them have been broken as a result of poor encryption structure. This research paper suggests an effective image encryption structure to resist possible attacks. The proposed method employs plain image related Henon map (PIHM) for shuffling and diffusion processes in a connected way which is different from conventional chaotic based image encryption systems, since the initial conditions of diffusion process are established based on the initial conditions of shuffling process. The principle of confusion is achieved by shuffling the pixels over all the rows and columns. And the diffusion is ensured by using XOR operation of current shuffled pixel value with the previous value, and random pixel produced from PIHM map. The results of simulation and security analysis indicate that the proposed scheme has desirable encryption effects and is robust against different common attacks.


D. Coppersmith, “The Data Encryption Standard (DES) and its strength against attacks,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 38, issue 3, pp. 243–250, 1994.

D. E. Standard, “Federal information processing standards publication 46,” National Bureau of Standards, US Department of Commerce, vol. 23, pp. 1–18, 1977.

W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice, Pearson Upper Saddle River, 2017.

R.Shaktawat, R.S. Shaktawat, I. Suwalka, N. Lakshmi, “Implementation of block-based symmetric algorithms for real image encryption,” in: A. Chaudhary, C. Choudhary, M. Gupta, C. Lal, T. Badal (Eds.), Microservices in Big Data Analytics, Springer, Singapore, 2020, pp. 127-140.

G. Lokeshwari, S. Susarla, S. U. Kumar, “A modified technique for reliable image encryption method using Merkle-Hellman cryptosystem and RSA algorithm,” Journal of Discrete Mathematical Sciences and Cryptography, vol. 18, issue 3, pp. 293–300, 2015.

S. A. Abaas, A. K. Shibeeb, “A new approach for video encryption based on modified AES algorithm,” IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE), vol. 17, issue 3, pp. 44–51, 2015.

J. Fridrich, “Symmetric ciphers based on two-dimensional chaotic maps,” International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, vol. 8, issue 6, pp. 1259–1284, 1998.

E. Solak, C. Çokal, O. T. Yildiz, T. Biyikoğlu, “Cryptanalysis of Fridrich’s chaotic image encryption,” International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, vol. 20, issue 5, pp. 1405–1413, 2010.

A. Kanso, M. Ghebleh, “A novel image encryption algorithm based on a 3D chaotic map,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 17, issue 7, pp. 2943–2959, 2012.

J. Chen, Z. Zhu, C. Fu, H. Yu, Y. Zhang, “Reusing the permutation matrix dynamically for efficient image cryptographic algorithm,” Signal Processing, vol. 111, pp. 294–307, 2015.

Z. Gan, X. Chai, M. Zhang, Y. Lu, “A double color image encryption scheme based on three-dimensional brownian motion,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 77, issue 21, pp. 27919–27953, 2018.

W. Zhang, H. Yu, Z. Zhu, “An image encryption scheme using self-adaptive selective permutation and inter-intra-block feedback diffusion,” Signal Processing, vol. 151, pp. 130–143, 2018.

E. Y. Xie, C. Li, S. Yu, J. Lü, “On the cryptanalysis of Fridrich’s chaotic image encryption scheme reference,” Signal Processing, vol. 132, pp. 150-154, 2016.

M. Arora, M. Khurana, “Secure image encryption technique based on Jigsaw transform and chaotic scrambling using digital image watermarking,” Optical and Quantum Electronics, vol. 52, issue 2, article no. 59, 2020.

C. Li, G. Luo, K. Qin, C. Li, “An image encryption scheme based on chaotic tent map,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 87, issue 1, pp. 127–133, 2017.

I. Hussain, M. A. Gondal, “An extended image encryption using chaotic coupled map and S-box transformation,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 76, issue 2, pp. 1355–1363, 2014.

M. Sharma, “Image encryption based on a new 2D logistic adjusted logistic map,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 79, issue 1–2, pp. 355–374, 2019.

W. Zhang, H. Yu, Y. Zhao, Z. Zhu, “Image encryption based on three-dimensional bit matrix permutation,” Signal Processing, vol. 118, pp. 36–50, 2016.

S. Stalin, P. Maheshwary, P. K. Shukla, M. Maheshwari, B. Gour, A. Khare, “Fast and Secure Medical Image Encryption Based on Non Linear 4D Logistic Map and DNA Sequences (NL4DLM_DNA),” Journal of Medical Systems, vol. 43, issue 8, article no. 267, 2019.

S. A. Mehdi, Z. L. Ali, “Image encryption algorithm based on a novel six - dimensional hyper - chaotic system,” Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science, vol. 31, issue 5, pp. 54-63, 2020.

H. Wang, D. Xiao, X. Chen, H. Huang, “Cryptanalysis and enhancements of image encryption using combination of the 1D chaotic map,” Signal Processing, vol. 144, pp. 444–452, 2018.

W. Feng, Y.-G. He, H.-M. Li, C.-L. Li, “Cryptanalysis of the integrated chaotic systems based image encryption algorithm,” Optik, vol. 186, pp. 449–457, 2019.

M. O. Meranza-Castillón, M. A. Murillo-Escobar, R. M. López-Gutiérrez, and C. Cruz-Hernández, “Pseudorandom number generator based on enhanced Hénon map and its implementation,” International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEÜ), vol. 107, pp. 239–251, 2019.

M. A. Murillo-Escobar, C. Cruz-Hernández, F. Abundiz-Pérez, “A RGB image encryption algorithm based on total plain image characteristics and chaos,” Signal Processing, vol. 109, pp. 119–131, 2015.

C. Dong, “Color image encryption using one-time keys and coupled chaotic systems,” Signal Process. Image Communication, vol. 29, issue 5, pp. 628–640, 2014.

X. Wu, K. Wang, X. Wang, H. Kan, J. Kurths, “Color image DNA encryption using NCA map-based CML and one-time keys,” Signal Processing, vol. 148, pp. 272–287, 2018.

J. Ahmad, M. A. Khan, F. Ahmed, J. S. Khan, “A novel image encryption scheme based on orthogonal matrix, skew tent map, and XOR operation,” Neural Computing and Applications, vol. 30, issue 12, pp. 3847–3857, 2018.

K. A. K. Patro, B. Acharya, “Secure multi – level permutation operation based multiple colour image encryption,” Journal of Information Security and Applications, vol. 40, pp. 111–133, 2018.

Z. Xiong, Y. Wu, C. Ye, X. Zhang, F. Xu, “Color image chaos encryption algorithm combining CRC and nine palace map,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 78, issue 22, pp. 31035-31055, 2019.

M. Ahmad, M. Z. Alam, Z. Umayya, S. Khan, F. Ahmad, “An image encryption approach using particle swarm optimization and chaotic map,” International Journal of Information Technology, vol. 10, issue 3, pp. 247–255, 2018.

M. Essaid, I. Akharraz, A. Saaidi, A. Mouhib, “Image encryption scheme based on a new secure variant of Hill cipher and 1D chaotic maps,” Journal of Information Security and Applications, vol. 47, pp. 173–187, 2019.

E. A. Albahrani, A. A.Maryoosh, S. H. Lafta, “Block image encryption based on modified playfair and chaotic system,” Journal of Information Security and Applications, vol. 51, pp. 102445, 2020.

B. Mondal, S. Singh, P. Kumar, “A secure image encryption scheme based on cellular automata and chaotic skew tent map,” Journal of Information Security and Applications, vol. 45, pp. 117–130, 2019.

G. Hanchinamani, L. Kulakarni, “Image Encryption Based on 2-D Zaslavskii Chaotic Map and Pseudo Hadmard Transform,” International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology, vol. 7, issue 4, pp. 185–200, 2014.

R. Krishnamoorthi, P. Murali, “Chaos based image encryption with orthogonal polynomials model and bit shuffling,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Signal processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), Noida, India, February 20-21, 2014, pp. 107–112.

R. Krishnamoorthi, P. Murali, “A selective image encryption based on square-wave shuffling with orthogonal polynomials transformation suitable for mobile devices,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 76, issue 1, pp. 1217–1246, 2017.

B. Norouzi, S. Mirzakuchaki, S. M. Seyedzadeh, M. R. Mosavi, “A simple, sensitive and secure image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaotic system with only one round diffusion process,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 71, issue 3, pp. 1469–1497, 2014.

K. K. Butt, G. Li, S. Khan, S. Manzoor, “Fast and Efficient Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Modular Addition and SPD,” Entropy, vol. 22, issue 1, article no. 112, 2020.

C. Pak, K. An, P. Jang, J. Kim, S. Kim, “A novel bit-level color image encryption using improved 1D chaotic map,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 78, issue 22, pp. 31035-31055, 2019.

X. Wang, S. Gao, “Image encryption algorithm for synchronously updating Boolean networks based on matrix semi-tensor product theory,” Information Sciences, vol. 507, pp. 16-36, 2020.

H. M. Ghadirli, A. Nodehi, R. Enayatifar, “An overview of encryption algorithms in color images,” Signal Processing, vol. 164, pp. 163-185, 2019.




How to Cite

Ahmed, M. H., Shibeeb, A. K., & Abbood, F. H. (2020). AN EFFICIENT CONFUSION-DIFFUSION STRUCTURE FOR IMAGE ENCRYPTION USING PLAIN IMAGE RELATED HENON MAP. International Journal of Computing, 19(3), 464-473. Retrieved from