New Hypertensive Retinopathy Grading Based on the Ratio of Artery Venous Diameter from Retinal Image
Keywords:hypertensive retinopathy, grading, artery-vein diameter ratio
Medical research indicated that narrowing of the retinal blood vessels might be an early indicator of cardiovascular diseases; one of them is hypertensive retinopathy. This paper proposed the new staging method of hypertensive retinopathy by measure the ratio of diameter artery and vein (AVR). The dataset used in this research is the public Messidor color fundus image dataset. The proposed method consists of image resizing using bicubic interpolation, optic disk detection, a region of interest computation, vessel diameter measuring, AVR calculation, and grading the new categories of Hypertensive Retinopathy based on Keith-Wagener-Barker categories. The experiments show that the proposed method can determine the stage of hypertensive retinopathy into new categories.
National heart lung and blood institute, The Morbidity and Mortality: Chartbook on Cardiovascular, Lung and Blood Diseases, US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, 1998.
T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, and J. M. Tielsch et al., “Retinal microvascular abnormalities, and their relation to hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and mortality,” Survey Ophthalmol., vol. 46, pp. 59–80, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-6257(01)00234-X.
L. D. Hubbard and R. J. Brothers et al., “Methods for evaluation of retinal microvascular abnormalities associated with hypertension/sclerosis in the atherosclerosis risk in communities studies,” Ophthalmology, vol. 106, pp. 2269–2280, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(99)90525-0.
T. Y.Wong, L. D. Hubbard, and R. Klein et al., “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and blood pressure in older people: the cardiovascular health study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol., vol. 82, pp. 1007–1013, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjo.86.9.1007.
A. Hoover, V. Kouznetsova, and M. Goldbaum, “Locating blood vessels in retinal images by piecewise threshold probing of a matched filter response,” IEEE Trans. Medical Image., vol. 19, issue 3, pp. 203–210, Mar. 2000. https://doi.org/10.1109/42.845178.
Y. A. Tolias and S. M. Panas, “A fuzzy vessel tracking algorithm for retinal images based on fuzzy clustering,” IEEE Trans. Medical Image., vol. 17, issue 2, pp. 263–273, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1109/42.700738.
M. Lalonde, L. Gagnon, and M. C. Boucher, “Non-recursive paired tracking for vessel extraction from retinal images,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Vision Interface, 2000, pp. 61–68.
R. M. Haralick, S. R. Sternberg, and X. Zhuang, “Image analysis using mathematical morphology,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell., vol. PAMI-9, pp. 532–550, 1987. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.1987.4767941.
T. McInerney and D. Terzopoulos, “Deformable models in medical image analysis: a survey,” Medical Image Analysis., vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 91–108, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-8415(96)80007-7.
M. Goldbaum, S. Moezzi, A. Taylor, and S. Chatterjee et al., “Automated diagnosis and image understanding with object extraction, object classification, and inferencing in retinal images,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference Image Processing, vol. 3, 1996, pp. 695–698.
O. Chutatape, Z. Liu, and S. M. Krishnan, “Retinal blood vessel detection and tracking by matched Gaussian and Kalman filters,” Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference. IEEE Engineering. Med. Biol. Soc., 1998, pp. 3144–3148.
I. Liu and Y. Sun, “Recursive tracking of vascular networks in angiograms based on the detection-deletion scheme,” IEEE Trans. Medical Image., vol. 12, issue 2, pp. 334–341, 1993. https://doi.org/10.1109/42.232264.
P. Jasiobedzki, C. J. Taylor, and J. N. H. Brunt, “Automated analysis of retinal images,” Image Vision Computing, vol. 11, issue 3, pp. 139–144, 1993. https://doi.org/10.1016/0262-8856(93)90052-I.
G. Luo, O. Chutatape, and S. M. Krishnan, “Detection and measurement of retinal vessels in fundus images using amplitude modified second-order Gaussian filter,” IEEE Tran. Biomed. Eng., vol. 49, issue 2, pp. 168–172, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/10.979356.
W. H. Spencer, “Ophthalmic Pathology: An Atlas and Text-book.” Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1996.
D. Ortíz, M. Cubides, A. Suárez, M. Zequera, J. Quiroga, J. Gómez, & N. Arroyo, “Support system for the preventive diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy,” Proceedings of the 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 2010, pp. 5649-5652. https://doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5628047.
C. Agurto, V. Joshi, S. Nemeth, P. Soliz, & S. Barriga, “Detection of hypertensive retinopathy using vessel measurements and textural features,” Proceedings of the 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2014, pp. 5406-5409. https://doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944848.
G. C. Manikis, V. Sakkalis, X. Zabulis, P. Karamaounas, A. Triantafyllou, S. Douma, & K. Marias, “An image analysis framework for the early assessment of hypertensive retinopathy signs,” Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE E-Health and Bioengineering Conference (EHB), 2011, pp. 1-6.
S. Khitran, M. U. Akram, A. Usman, & U. Yasin, “Automated system for the detection of hypertensive retinopathy,” Proceedings of the 2014 4th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing Theory, Tools and Applications (IPTA), 2014, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/IPTA.2014.7001984.
L. D. Hubbard et al., “Methods for evaluation of retinal microvascular abnormalities associated with hypertension/sclerosis in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 106, pp. 2269–2280, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(99)90525-0.
L. Downie, S. Rogers, and P. P. Connell, “Hypertensive retinopathy: Comparing the Keith-Wagener-Barker to a simplified classification?,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 31, issue 5, pp. 960-965, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835efea3.
Messidor, Methods for Evaluating Segmentation and Indexing techniques Dedicated to Retinal Ophthalmology. [Online]. Available at: http://www.adcis.net/en/Download-Third-Party/Messidor.html.
J. Titus, M. T. S. CSE, and S. Geroge, “A comparison study on different interpolation methods based on satellite images,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology. vol. 2. Issue. 6, pp. 82–85. 2013.
S. Yuan, M. Abe, A. Taguchi, and M. Kawamata, “High accuracy bicubic interpolation using image local features,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications, and Computer Sciences, vol. 90, issue 8, pp. 1611–1615, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1093/ietfec/e90-a.8.1611.
H.S. Prashanth, H.L. Shashidhara, & K.N. Balasubramanya Murthy, M. “Image scaling comparison using universal image quality index,” Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies, 2009, pp. 859-863. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACT.2009.218.
A. Bhuiyan, R. Kawasaki, and E. Lamoureux, “Retinal artery – vein caliber grading using color fundus,” Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol. 111, issue 1, pp. 104–114, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.02.004.
J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 8, issue 6, pp 679–698, 1986. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.1986.4767851.
R. C. Gonzalez, R. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.
How to Cite
LicenseInternational Journal of Computing is an open access journal. Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
• Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
• Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
• Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.