Wireless Sensor Network based Forest Fire Early Detection Systems: Development and Implementation
Keywords:monitoring, wireless sensor network, forest fire, ZigBee technology, a covering, universal system
The article is devoted to the development of a monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks. The purpose of the article is to implement a system for environmental monitoring using wireless sensor networks, as well as to solve the problem of covering the area with this network. Wireless sensor networks and their involvement in environmental monitoring are investigated and interactions between wireless networks and data communication protocols are described. The monitoring system is considered and analyzed. An experiment is conducted in which it has been checked at what maximum distance the temperature parameters can be transmitted, the experiment is conducted with and without interference. Routing algorithms for how they work and how parameters (temperature) are transmitted from sensors to the server are considered. A terrestrial monitoring system layout for environmental monitoring is investigated and developed based on Zigbee wireless sensor network construction technology, given that it can be added to this network new units or their replacement. The Mesh topology is selected and the separate physical devices that are the nodes of this network are identified. Nodes are also designed, using modules from Digi called XBee as a base station for Arduino sensors and as a ZigBee data base. These nodes are investigated for noise immunity and stability using flame, smoke and temperature sensors. The study found that XBee nodes are very unstable working near Wi-Fi routers and interfering in the form of forest. The conclusion about the result of the experiment is formulated, as well as how the system can be further upgraded, which can be added and what parameters can be observed. The proposed method for the location of the ground forest fire monitoring system’s equipment ensures full control and the flame detection preciseness.
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